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    2024,40(4):1-6,46, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.80223
    Abstract:
    Objective: Improve 3D printing performance and gel properties of silver carp surimi system. Methods: By optimizing 3D printing parameters, the 3D printing process is associated with material rheological properties and 3D printing performance. The effects of sodium chloride addition on rheological properties, 3D printing properties, gel strength, moisture properties and microstructure of silver carp surimi were investigated. Results: The addition of sodium chloride decreased the loss modulus of surimi in a dose-dependent manner, but significantly improved the shear recovery performance, reduced the cooking loss of surimi system and increased the water retention of surimi system. The best gel strength and the densest microstructure of silver carp were obtained when the sodium chloride content was 2.5%. Conclusion: Adding proper amount of sodium chloride can improve the 3D printing performance and gel properties of surimi products.
    2024,40(4):7-12,58, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.80185
    Abstract:
    Objective: Explore the cryoprotective mechanism and structure-activity relationship of antifreeze peptides derived from silver carp parvalbumin. Methods: Using differential scanning calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation to compare activity, structure and mode of action of two typical peptides. Results: Pv-AFP 1 (KAADSFNH KAFFAKVG) had a stable α-helix structure, while Pv-AFP 2 (KAADSFNHKAF) tended to exhibit random coil. The thermal hysteresis activity of Pv-AFP 1 was 0.87 ℃, which was higher than Pv-AFP 2 (0.74 ℃). Molecular dynamics simulations showed that Pv-AFP 1 could interact with 53 water molecules, and could form 16 hydrogen bonds to adsorb onto the surface of ice crystals, with a binding energy of -1 514 kJ/mol, all were greater than Pv-AFP 2 (can bind 50 water molecules, adsorb on ice surface by forming 11 hydrogen bonds, with a binding energy of -805 kJ/mol). Despite the similarity of the two peptide sequences, their major sites and modes of interactions with water molecules and ice crystals were somewhat different. In addition, both peptides could interact with ice/water interface and altered the curvature of the ice surface, thereby inhibiting water freezing. But Pv-AFP 1 showed a better inhibitory effect on ice surface growth than Pv-AFP 2, which was consistent with their thermal hysteresis activity. Conclusion: The activities of antifreeze peptides derived from silver carp parvalbumin might be related to their structural characters and their affinities, sites and modes of interaction with water molecules and ice crystals.
    2024,40(4):13-19,26, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.60036
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to improve the quality of brown rice. Methods: The content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase were used as indicators to study the effect of enrichment conditions on GABA content. Based on the optimal parameters, GABA content in each part of the grain was analyzed to reveal the migration law of GABA. Finally, the effect of the method on the quality of brown rice was analyzed and compared with the soaking method. Results: The highest GABA content was obtained when the water content of the raw material was 14.5% with the final moisture content of 20%, enrichment at 65 ℃ for 5 h. During the enrichment process, GABA was mainly generated in the bran layer and then migrated inward. The content of GABA in brown rice with different milling rates reached the peak at 5 h, but the migration rate tended to be stable after 4 h. The highest migration rate of GABA in endosperm was 87.1%. Compared with the soaking method, the brown rice enriched by the heating and humidifying method showed a yellower color, lower waist burst rate and softer cooked rice. Conclusion: The heating and humidification method is superior to the soaking method and can be used to prepare brown rice and white rice with high GABA content.
    2024,40(4):20-26, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.80202
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of mechanical processing on the physicochemical properties of oat β-glucan and its in vitro fermentation. Methods: Oat coarse grains, oat flakes, and oat flour were respectively produced through mechanical progressing methods such as steel cutting, table pressing, and grinding. Then, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure, the content, dissolution rate and relative molecular weight of oat β-glucan were determined, and the colon environment was simulated in vitro for fermentation. Results: The total β-glucan content and dissolution rate of steel-cutting oat were higher than those of untreated sample. The total β-glucan content of oat flake and oat flour were lower than untreated oat, but the dissolution rate was higher than it. Untreated oat showed a lower fermentation rate, with a significantly lower acid and gas production rate than those of steel-cutting oat, oat flake, and oat flour. The total short chain fatty acid content of untreated oat produced by fermentation was the lowest, but the content of propionic acid and butyric acid was significantly higher than the other three groups. Conclusion: Mechanical progressing can affect the in vitro fermentation characteristics of oats by altering the integrity of their cell wall structure, as well as the content and dissolution rate of β-glucan. Moderate processing can contribute to the health benefits of oats.
    2024,40(4):27-33,89, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80678
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of different ultrasonic enhancement methods on the quality characteristics of dried lotus root in heat pumps. Methods: The effects of US, CU, and USOD on the drying characteristics, appearance color, microstructure, texture characteristics, nutritional quality and antioxidant characteristics of the lotus root heat pump during the drying process were investigated. Ultrasonic (US), direct contact ultrasound (CU), USOD and heat pump drying (HPD) were treated in series and parallel. The coefficient of variation method was used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of lotus root dried by different ultrasonic enhancement methods. Results: US, CU and USOD treatments had positive effects on the HPD speed of lotus roots. The brightness (L*), polysaccharide content, and hydroxyl radical scavenging rate of lotus root obtained by USOD-HPD were the best, which were 77.98, 51.68 mg/g, and 45.94%, respectively. US-HPD treatment can better retain the content of flavonoids and vitamin C in lotus root. HPD lotus root had the highest polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging. The comprehensive evaluation results of the coefficient of variation method showed that the USOD-HPD lotus root had the best quality. Conclusion: The combined drying method of USOD-HPD can effectively improve the quality of lotus root.
    2024,40(4):34-39, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80662
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to explore the aroma differences of Pixian bean paste from different brands and establish an analytical method for quality evaluation and quality control methods in Douban Sauce, based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques along with sensory evaluation. Methods: Three different brands of Pixian Douban Sauce were selected as the research objects. SPME and GC-MS techniques were used to extract and qualitatively analyze the aroma components, and the sensory evaluation of the three types of Pixian Douban Sauce was conducted based on current effective group standards. Results: 57, 90, and 70 volatile flavor compounds were identified in brands T, J, and C Pixian Douban Sauce, and 46, 70, and 60 were identified in the database. Excluding impurity peaks and extremely low content fragment peaks, the flavor substances of brands T, J, and C are 32, 47, and 43, respectively. Brand J has the highest sensory rating, followed by brand T, and brand C has the lowest. Based on the analysis of aroma components and content, the relative content of 3-methylbutyraldehyde and 2-methylbutyraldehyde (both with apple aroma and a pleasant feeling) in brand J is higher than the other two brands, and only furfural with a relative content greater than 3% was detected in brand C. Conclusion: The combination of SPME-GC-MS technology and sensory evaluation analysis can distinguish the aroma components of different brands of Pixian Douban Sauce.
    2024,40(4):40-46, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80725
    Abstract:
    Objective: The preparation method of matrix reference materials of bifenthrin and cyhalothrin pesticide residues in green tea was established. Methods: Green tea samples were sprayed with biphenylthrin and cyhalothrin. The samples were crushed, screened, homogenized and bottled. After the homogeneity and stability tests, the quantity value was determined by three laboratories, and the uncertainty was evaluated. Results: The amount values of bifenthrin and cyhalothrin in green tea were (0.185±0.019 7) and (0.207±0.046 6) mg/kg with k=2, and the confidence interval was 95%. Conclusion: The developed matrix reference materials of bifenthrin and cyhalothrin in green tea are homogeneous and stable enough, and the calibration results are reliable.
    2024,40(4):47-53, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.60019
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antibiotic resistance of five foodborne Escherichia coli clinical isolates to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ampicillin. Methods: Based on the theory of electron transfer during bacterial energy metabolism and the introduction of resazurin as a redox probe, an electrochemical square wave voltammetry (SWV) method based on bladed tensin-mediated rapid identification of E. coli drug resistance was established. Results: The electrochemical square wave voltammetry values of E. coli at different concentrations mediated by resazurin were determined, and there was a good linear relationship between the E. coli concentration and the oxidized peak current (I) of resazurin in the range of 1.69×102~1.69×108 CFU/mL, with the regression equation of Y=-0.156 0X-2.965 5, and R2=0.977 5; When performing the determination of E. coli drug resistance, the drug sensitivity test standard was developed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The oxidized peak current (I0) of resazurin and the oxidized peak current (I-a) obtained by E. coli after directly interacting with resazurin were used as the control, and the oxidized peak current (I+a) obtained by E. coli after treating it with antibiotics and interacting with resazurin was determined. The value of bacterial activity VETA was introduced as VETA as an indicator for the identification of bacterial resistance by electrochemical square wave voltammetry, and established a rapid electrochemical drug sensitivity test method for E. coli mediated by resazurin. The established method was used to detect the resistance of five clinical isolates of foodborne E. coli to three antibiotics, and VETA=50 was used as the critical value for determining bacterial sensitivity and resistance, and the results of the drug sensitivity tests were all in accordance with the results of the paper diffusion method. The VETA=50 was used as the critical value for determining bacterial susceptibility and resistance, and all the results were consistent with the results of the paper diffusion method, and the paper diffusion method required 18 h to report the results, whereas this method required only 2 h. Conclusion: Our electrochemical square-wave voltammetry method based on the resazurin-mediated rapid discrimination of E. coli drug resistance is able to accurately and rapidly detect the antibiotics resistance of the five foodborne clinical isolates of E. coli to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and ampicillin.
    2024,40(4):54-58, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80808
    Abstract:
    Objective: To astablish a strong popularity, high sensitivity of six human milk oligosaccharides in dairy product by precolumn derivatization high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Methods: Aquatic product sample was precipitated with glacial acetic acid, filtration by using the filter paper. It was derived by 2-aminobenzamide solution. The extracts were centrifuged and filtered by using the organic filter membrane and analyzed by using a AdvanceBio Glycan Map column to be separated and detected,employing acetonitrile-50 mmol/L ammonium formate solution (pH 4.4) as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Results: Under the experimental conditions, six human milk oligosaccharides in dairy product were linear in the range of 1.00~400.0 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were all over 0.999. The detection limit of the method was 4.1~10.9 mg/kg, the limits of quantification were 12.3~32.7 mg/kg, the mean recoveries rate was ranged from 71.3% to 90.2% with the intra-day precisions (n=6) in the range of 1.0%~6.3% and inter-day precisions (n=6) less than 10.0%. Conclusion: This method can meet the requirements of the daily detection of six human milk oligosaccharides due to its simplicity and sensitives.
    2024,40(4):59-64,83, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.60116
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the differences in runner performance of screw groups with different differential ratios, and to clarify the effects of differential speed on the extrusion performance of polylactic acid materials. Methods: Four groups of differential twin screw groups were established by Solidworks software, meshing and finite element numerical simulation were carried out by Fluent software, the calculation results were analyzed by CFD-post software, and the contours and discounted plots of various characterization parameters were combined, and they were verified by experiments. Results: Under the condition that the inlet and outlet pressures were 0.2 MPa and 0.5 MPa, and the reference speed of a single head was 30 r/min, the screws with a differential ratio of 1∶2 and 1∶3 had their own advantages and disadvantages under different properties, and the screws with a difference ratio of 1∶2 for output and pressure in the barrel had an advantage. In terms of mixing capacity, a screw with a differential ratio of 1∶3 had an advantage. Conclusion: Compared with the traditional twin-screw extruder, the differential twin-screw extruder has a positive impact on the extrusion performance of polylactic acid materials, and can be used as a new polylactic acid production equipment.
    2024,40(4):65-71,77, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.81157
    Abstract:
    Objective: A trans-critical CO2 refrigeration system with ejector is proposed and its performance factors are studied. Methods: In this paper, energy and exergic system model combined with experiment method were used to study the impact of the change of major parameters on traditional and new refrigeration systems. Results: In a given working condition, exergy efficiency of the compressor increased by 11.08% when an injector replaced the throttle valve, while the power of the compressor decreased by 6.04% and the performance factor increased by 11.1%. The optimum gas cooler pressure was found to maximize the system performance. In addition, the exergic damage of the system components was optimized in this paper. Conclusion: The ejector of the new system has great potential for optimization, and the outlet temperature of the gas cooler has the greatest influence on the performance of the ejector.
    2024,40(4):72-77, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.60178
    Abstract:
    Objective: To solve the problems of low control accuracy and poor motion stability in the trajectory tracking control method of parallel food sorting robots. Methods: On the basis of analyzing the structure of a four degree of freedom parallel robot, a combination of sliding mode control algorithm, fuzzy control algorithm, and improved bat algorithm was proposed for trajectory tracking control of a parallel food sorting robot. Optimizing the bandwidth of fuzzy algorithms by improving the bat algorithm, and adaptively adjusting the fuzzy gain and sliding surface slope of the sliding membrane control algorithm through the optimized fuzzy control algorithm, the tracking error of the controller was reduced, improve anti-interference ability, and verify the superiority of the proposed trajectory tracking control method. Results: The proposed trajectory tracking control method had an actual sorting accuracy of 99.90% and an average sorting time of 0.509 seconds. Conclusion: Compared with conventional methods, the proposed trajectory tracking control method has higher joint trajectory tracking accuracy, stronger anti-interference ability, and smoother output torque.
    2024,40(4):78-83, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80622
    Abstract:
    Objective: To improve the accuracy and comprehensiveness of oyster grading. Methods: The oyster automatic grading equipment was proposed and designed, the oyster queuing structure combining the rotating drum and the baffle conveyor belt, the grading method combining weight detection and machine vision detection were determined, and the overall structure design of the oyster grading equipment was completed. The oyster image was collected by industrial camera, and the oyster image was extracted by Otsu binarization, Gaussian filtering processing, Canny operator edge extraction and other methods. The oyster was graded by machine vision algorithm with length and fullness as the standard, and the comparison test between machine vision grading and manual grading were carried out. Results: The machine vision classification accuracy of oysters was 95.4%, and the image detection speed was about 0.647 s/image. Conclusion: Machine vision is effective for oyster grading and can classify oysters more accurately.
    2024,40(4):84-89, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80765
    Abstract:
    Objective: To solve the problems of low accuracy and low efficiency, high labor intensity and high production cost of fresh fruit manual sorting in China. Methods: A new dynamic weighing type fruit sorting machine was developed based on the fruit weight classification method. This machine operated by initially collecting the weight of fruit through a high-precision weighing unit. The data collected was then processed in conjunction with a signal processing module and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The processed data controlled an actuator, specifically a launcher, to execute the sorting based on the fruit's weight. This machine was capable of continuously performing loading, weighing (diameter ≤126 mm). Results: When the separation efficiency was 18 327, 14 400, 10 473 PCS/h, the average separation accuracy was 95.31%, 96.12%, 97.13%, and the damage rate was 1.09%, 1.11%, 1.15%, respectively. Fruit sorting speed significantly affected the sorting accuracy, but had no significant effect on fruit damage rate. Conclusion: The new dynamic weighing type fruit sorting machine can effectively improve the efficiency of fruit sorting and reduce the damage to fruit under the premise of keeping the sorting accuracy >95%.
    2024,40(4):90-99, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.80238
    Abstract:
    Objective: Screening of polyvinyl alcohol-fish gelatin-solanum nigrum anthocyanin (PVA/FG-SNA) composite packaging film with optimal structure and properties. Methods: Optimizing the fabrication process of films through orthogonal tests, and using thickness, moisture content, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis to explore the effects of SNAs with different mass fractions on the properties and microstructures of PVA-FG film; In addition, the pH color response and NH3 sensitivity of the PVA/FG-SNA composite film were monitored. Results: When the mass ratio of PVA-to-FG, heating temperature and time were 60∶40, 95 ℃, and 1.5 h, respectively. The water solubility and WVP of the PVA-FG film were (36.03±2.63)%, and 2.91×10-4 g·mm/(m2·h·Pa), separately. With the increment of SNA dosage, the thickness, moisture content, WVP, and EB of the PVA-FG film also increased. When the mass fraction of SNA was 0.2%, the thickness, moisture content, WVP, TS, and EB of the composite film were (0.07±0.01) mm, (11.09±0.25)%, 5.45×10-4 g·mm/(m2·h·Pa), (21.12±1.07) MPa, and (373.77±8.59)%, respectively. At the same time the composite film had good compatibility among its components. In addition, the PVA/FG-0.2% SNA film showed good color response under NH3 atmosphere conditions, which could be used as a pH-indicating film. Conclusion: This article optimized the water resistance of the PVA-FG composite base film. The hydrophobic and mechanical properties of the PVA-FG composite base film are negatively correlated with the amount of SNA dosage, and SNA can significantly enhance the pH and NH3 sensitivity of the film.
    2024,40(4):100-106,120, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.60030
    Abstract:
    To meet the needs of consumers to combine traditional cultural connotations with food packaging, a research method for extracting traditional pattern features under extensible semantics is proposed. By analyzing and screening the patterns of Tang Dynasty gold and silver artifacts, the target pattern elements were established, and an extensible semantic model was constructed; Perform semantic lexical extension analysis on pattern primitives to obtain the maximum design value range. Visualize and analyze feature semantics using graphical thinking, and derive and evolve them using shape grammar. Taking a certain mooncake packaging design as an example, several design schemes were designed using this method, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was conducted on them, achieving high satisfaction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the design method based on extensible semantics have been verified, providing new ideas for the inheritance and development of traditional patterns in modern food packaging design.
    2024,40(4):107-111,157, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.60133
    Abstract:
    Integrating technological elements or showcasing technological features in food packaging design can present unique visual effects and functional value, enhancing product image and brand value. This paper further optimizes the presentation effect of technology in food packaging design and enhances the market competitiveness of products through clear design positioning, exploration of diverse expressions, integration of traditional culture, and reflection of humanistic care.
    2024,40(4):112-120, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.81186
    Abstract:
    Objective: A coupled model for predicting tomato quality during short-term storage and transportation under extreme temperatures, utilizing the Arrhenius equation in conjunction with meteorological temperature data, to forecast the quality changes in tomatoes during the short-term storage and transportation processes under extreme weather conditions. Methods: Analyzing the meteorological temperature data for the year 2020 in Weifang, Baoding, and Daxing, 7 temperature points were selected to simulate the range of temperature variations for short-term storage and transportation of tomatoes. By utilizing the Arrhenius equation and integrating temperature with weight loss rate, hardness, color difference (ΔE), and sensory evaluation scores (SE), a coupled model was developed for predicting tomato quality. The model was validated by using temperatures of -10 ℃ and 12 ℃. Results: Within 48 hours of storage and transportation, Loss rate and ΔE of tomatoes gradually increased, while evaluation scores (SE) and hardness decreased gradually. The quality prediction coupling model based on the Arrhenius equation combined with meteorological temperature data was constructed. Under storage conditions from 0 to 36 ℃, changes in loss rate and SE were fitted with zero-order reactions, while changes in hardness and ΔE were fitted with first-order and half-order reactions, respectively. For storage conditions from -15 to 0 ℃, zero-order reaction fits were applied to model the changes in SE, ΔE, weight loss rate, and hardness. Validation of the predictive model revealed that, under 12 ℃ storage conditions, the relative errors for tomato weight loss rate, hardness, and SE were within 15%, except for the 48 hour prediction. Under -10 ℃ storage conditions, the relative errors for tomato hardness and SE were within 15%, excluding the 48 hour prediction. Conclusion: The coupled model for tomato quality prediction, constructed by integrating the Arrhenius equation with extreme meteorological temperature data, proves to be effective in forecasting the quality of tomatoes under extreme temperature conditions.
    2024,40(4):121-126, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.60150
    Abstract:
    Objective: In order to improve the accuracy of machine vision technology in grading the appearance quality of red Fuji apples, a red Fuji apple appearance grading method based on improved whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and CNN is proposed. Methods: A red Fuji apple image database with different appearance quality levels was established, and the database images were preprocessed so as to improve the training effect and generalization ability of the model. The improved CNN-LSTM was designed as the weighted grey correlation method was used to compress the CNN convolution scale, in order to reduce redundant interference between features and improve the computational speed of the model. The improved whale optimization algorithm was used to optimize the hyperparameters configuration of CNN-LSTM, effectively reducing the impact of improper hyperparameter configuration on model classification results. Results: The simulation results showed that the proposed classification method had a higher accuracy, with classification accuracy and sensitivity improved by about 2.05% and 2.46%. Conclusion: The proposed method can effectively achieve the appearance grading of red Fuji apples.
    2024,40(4):127-135,178, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.60015
    Abstract:
    Objective: Improve the identification accuracy of banana ripeness. Methods: A novel method was established to identify banana ripeness based on CNN and XgBoost. Firstly, convolutional neural network was used to extract banana image features, and full-connected layer network and linear discriminant analysis were used to simplify banana image features. Then, the hyperparameters of the limit gradient lifting algorithm were optimized by Bayesian optimization algorithm. Finally, the simplified banana image features were input into the limit gradient lifting algorithm, and the banana ripeness was judged by the limit gradient lifting algorithm. Results: The identification accuracy of the method for banana ripeness was 91.25%. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed method was more accurate to distinguish the ripeness of bananas with small data volume. Conclusion: The proposed method can realize the accurate identification of banana ripeness, which is helpful for warehouse managers and exporters to monitor banana ripeness in real time.
    2024,40(4):136-147, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80402
    Abstract:
    Objective: To mitigate unfavorable factors during the packing, transportation, and storage of fruits and vegetables, a foldable, preassembled turnover box was designed based on the premise of recycling. Methods: Standardized boxes were used to hold sweet potatoes, which were considered long rotating ellipsoids, and the storage environment was modeled. A porous medium model, a species transport model, and a local non-thermal equilibrium model were used to study the temperature, humidity, speed, O2 volume fraction, and CO2 volume fraction distributions in the cargo area during the curing warming, post-curing cooling, and storage stages. Results: 40 ℃ was the optimum curing air supply temperature, and the time required was 5.85 h. 10 m/s was the optimum post-curing cooling air supply speed, and the time required was 8.47 h. The air supply velocity (4.0~6.0 m/s) had little effect on the distribution of O2 and CO2 volume fractions. When the air supply velocity was 4.5 m/s, the storage effect was the optimal, with deviation rates of 1.24% and 0.48% compared to the target storage conditions (12 ℃, 90.00% RH). The generation of respiratory heat in sweet potatoes leaded to a shorter time for the internal temperature of the cargo area to reach the target curing temperature, while requiring a longer time to reach the target storage temperature. Compared to thermal conduction, convective heat transfer played a dominant role, resulting in a lag in temperature change between the internal and external temperatures of the cargo area during the storage process. Increasing the temperature and air supply velocity facilitated a faster attainment of the desired curing and storage temperatures. The physical characteristics and storage volume of sweet potatoes within the cargo area determined the subsequent warming and cooling processes. Conclusion: The velocity field on the surface of the cargo area exhibits a weak correlation with the distribution of RH, whereas the temperature field demonstrates a negative correlation with the RH field and exhibits a similar distribution pattern. The air supply velocity can alter the fluid flow direction inside the cargo area box, and both the magnitude of the air supply velocity and the direction of fluid flow inside the box significantly impact on the temperature distribution within the cargo area.
    2024,40(4):148-157, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.60008
    Abstract:
    Objective: The PCSPHs were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of Procambarus clarkii shells, and their hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering activities in vitro were evaluated and peptide sequence were analyzed. Methods: Different crayfish shell proteolysates were prepared by hydrolysis of pepsin, alcalase protease, trypsin, flavor protease and papain, and their in vitro hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering activities were evaluated and peptide sequences were determined. The peptides sequence of Procambarus clarkii shells was identified by LC-MS/MS. Taking the crystal structure of the nuclear receptor PPARγ ligand binding region as the target, Autodock vina was used to simulate molecular docking to obtain crayfish shell peptides with potential hypoglycemic/lipid-lowering activities. Results: The PEP-PCSPHs had significant inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 values of (5.42±0.05) mg/mL and (7.11±1.01) mg/mL, respectively. The TRY-PCSPHs had the strongest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity, with an IC50 of (4.71±1.12) mg/mL, and exhibited the best in vitro binding effects on sodium glycinocholate. In addition, 3 391 peptide sequences were identified in pepsin hydrolysates and 2 086 peptide sequences were identified in trypsin hydrolysates, and multiple hypoglycemic/lipid-lowering crayfish shell active peptides that could bind to PPARγ were screened through online website prediction and molecular docking. Conclusion: The shrimp shell peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of crayfish shells have potential hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering activities, which may play a role in improving glucose and lipid metabolism disorders.
    2024,40(4):158-164, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80507
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the nutrient composition and the optimal enzymatic conditions for the peptides of Aspongopus and lay the groundwork for the creation of Aspongopus protein resources. Methods: The fat, protein, crude polysaccharide content, and fatty acid composition were determined according to the national standard method, and the total flavonoid and polyphenol content was determined by the standard curve method. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the enzymatic process conditions of Aspongopus based on the peptide yield; Amino acid analyzer and high-performance gel permeation chromatography was used to determine the amino acid composition and the relative molecular mass distribution of Aspongopus digest; The scavenging ability of Aspongopus digest of DPPH radicals and ABTS+ radicals as well as the total reducing ability were investigated. Results: Aspongopus crude fat content was 43.40%, and protein content was 37.08%; The contents of total sugar, total flavonoids and total phenols were 7.64%, 1.67%, 1.90% respectively; The optimum enzymatic digestion process of Aspongopus was stewing for 5 h and then digesting for was 6 h at pH 10 and 55 ℃, and the peptide yield was 35.74% under these conditions. The ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids of Aspongopus digest was 70.46%, the percentage of Aspongopus digest relative molecular mass <1 000 was 88.1%; The ABTS+ clearance rate was 88.44% at the concentration of 1.0 mg/mL of the enzymatic digest of Aspongopus. Conclusion: Under the control of the optimal procession conditions, the peptide yield of Aspongopus was 35.74%, with high nutritional value and good antioxidant activity.
    2024,40(4):165-171, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.81253
    Abstract:
    Objective: To discover the material substances of the numbing characteristics in Polygonatum Rhizoma. Methods: Polygonati Rhizoma from eight regions were processed by the "nine-steam-nine-bask" method, and its content changes of saponin, polyphenol and calcium oxalate crystal at different steaming times were determined. The degree change of numbing was determined by the cell hemolysis test and sensory properties, and a correlation analysis of numbing was conducted. Results: With the increase of steaming times, the contents of polyphenol and saponin in Polygonati Rhizoma from different regions were initially increased and then decreased, while the content of calcium oxalate crystal and hemolysis rate and the sensory score of numbing decreased gradually. The correlation analysis results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) or a highly significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between the content of calcium oxalate crystal and the numbing degree. SEM results showed that the structure of calcium oxalate crystal was gradually destroyed after steaming, which coincided with the change of numbing. Conclusion: This research proves that calcium oxalate crystal may be the key substance for the numbing in Polygonatum Rhizoma, which can provide a scientific basis for the study of the numbing elimination technology of Polygonatum Rhizoma.
    2024,40(4):172-178, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80800
    Abstract:
    Objective: To better control the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and ensure the food safety of Xiangwei Luodou dry. Methods: The putrefactive microorganisms in Xiangwei dried tofu were identified by plate scribing method, colony morphology observation, Gram staining, 16S rDNA and ITS sequence. Results: A total of 9 strains were isolated andscreened. KZ2780-3 and KZ2780-4 are Bacillus subtilis, NZ2559-1 is Bacillus cereus, and JZ2559-5 is Bacillusamylolyticus amyloliquefaciens, FZ2559-2 for Klebsiella pneumoniae, SZ2641-5 for Enterococcus faecium, RZ2641-7 for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, BZ2780-1 for Acinetobacter baui, CZ2780-5 for Penicillium citri. Conclusion: The strains causing dry rot of Xiangwei bean are Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Acinetobacter baui and Penicillium citri. The control methods of Xiangwei stewed bean dry are ultra-high temperature instantaneous sterilization technology, plasma sterilization technology, natural antibacterial substances combined with biological preservatives, vacuum packaging, air conditioning preservation and so on.
    2024,40(4):179-186,209, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80593
    Abstract:
    Objective: In order to predict and control the hot air drying process of Mango. Methods: Using fresh Mangifera indica Linn as experimental material, the effects were studied in different hot air temperatures (60, 65, 70 ℃) and different thickness of Mango slices (0.8, 1.0, 1.2 cm) on the drying curve, drying characteristic curve and effective moisture diffusion coefficient of Mango. Selecting six commonly used drying models suitable for fruits and vegetables for fitting, analysis, and validation, the most suitable model for Mango hot air drying was selected. Results: With the increase of temperature and the decrease of slice thickness, the drying rate of Mango slices was accelerated, resulting in shorter drying times. The effective diffusion coefficient of water increases with the increase of temperature and thickness, in the range of 1.401 39×10-10 to 3.655 46×10-10 m2/s. R2 of Logarithmic model was the largest, and X2 and RMSE were the smallest, which were 0.998 87, 0.000 124 779 and 0.001 37 respectively. Conclusion: The predicted values are basically consistent with the experimental values, accord with Mango hot air drying, it can better reflect the changing law of moisture content of Mango slices during drying.
    2024,40(4):187-195, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.81046
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to optimize the preparation process of polysaccharides from lemon peel and screen out the components with high hypoglycemic activity. Methods: Ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction of lemon peel polysaccharide, combined with response surface test to explore the best extraction process, through DEAE-52 anion chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel column chromatography separation and purification to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide fraction (named as LPs-1a). The effective hypoglycemic components of lemon peel polysaccharides were screened by α-glucosidase and their relative molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and characteristic groups were analyzed. Results: The optimal extraction process of lemon peel polysaccharide was ultrasonic treatment for at 55 ℃ for 44 min with solid-liquid ratio 1∶20 (g/mL) and cellulase addition rate 1.1%. Under the control of these conditions, the yield of lemon peel polysaccharide was 6.83%, which was close to the predicted value. The LPs-1a fraction significantly inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase with (1.22±0.04) mg/mL of IC50(P<0.05). The relative molecular weight of this component was 195 260, and it was connected by α-glycosidic bonds and β-glycosidic bonds with a pyranose ring. The morphology of the polysaccharide was fibrous, and it was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose Conclusion: Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic method is helpful in screening the highly hypoglycemic active components of lemon peel polysaccharides.
    2024,40(4):196-202, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80994
    Abstract:
    Objective: Determine the appropriate soymilk concentration and slurry depth to provide a theoretical reference for the efficient and high-quality production of yuba. Methods: The effect of soymilk solids concentration and slurry depth on the yield, film-forming rate, nutrient contents, mechanical properties, cooking loss rate, and rehydration ratio were investigated. Results: The optimal yield solids of yuba (34.68%) and highest nutritional value occurs when the soymilk solids concentration is 6% and the soymilk slurry depth is 6 cm, which presents 51.05% protein, 23.42% fats, and it also has good tensile strength and rehydration qualities, with respective measurements of 3.74 MPa and 3.80 g/g. Conclusion: Considering various factors such as yield, film formation rate and overall food quality, it is recommended to employ processing conditions with a soymilk solids concentration of 6% and a slurry depth of 6 cm for the efficient and high-quality production of yuba.
    2024,40(4):203-209, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.80970
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to prepare a kind of mushroom paste with Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Agaricus bisporus as raw materials by enzymolysis with cellulase. Methods: The response surface method was used to optimize the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis process of the mushroom paste with amino acid nitrogen content as the index. Results: The optimal enzymolysis conditions were as follows: enzyme dosage 0.6%, pH 6, enzymolysis temperature 50 ℃, solid-liquid ratio 1∶30 (g/mL). Under these conditions, the actual amino acid nitrogen content was 0.418 μg/100 g. Conclusion: The sensory evaluation and nutritional indexes of the mushroom paste are up to or better than the national standard, which indicates that the process is feasible and has certain popularization and application values.
    2024,40(4):210-219, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2024.80268
    Abstract:
    As one of the most widely used plasticizers, BPA is often used in various types of food packaging. However, the leaching of BPA from food and water and the emission of BPA in the manufacturing process can harm human health. In recent years, carbon-based composites have shown excellent performance in the detection of BPA due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The rapid detection of BPA by electrochemical sensors based on carbon-based composites has become a research hotspot. This article provides an overview of BPA and the application of carbon-based materials modified electrochemical sensors in the detection of BPA, as well as prospects for the development direction of electrochemical detection of BPA.
    2024,40(4):220-226, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.81289
    Abstract:
    Because of high moisture content, blueberries are susceptible to disease and insect infestation leading to corruption and deterioration, which has serious influence on the shelf life of blueberry fruits. This article summarizes the cause mechanism of postharvest quality deterioration of blueberry fruits and the research progress of blueberry preservation technology at home and abroad, mainly including physical, chemical and biological preservation methods; and emphasizes the application of biological methods in the postharvest preservation of blueberries.
    2024,40(4):227-232, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80789
    Abstract:
    Polysaccharides and proteins are two important components in food. Combining plant protein with polysaccharides can give full play to their advantages, show new functional characteristics, and improve their shortcomings. In this review, the preparation and influencing factors of polysaccharides-plant proteins complex, the functional properties of the polysaccharide-plant protein complex and its application are introduced.
    2024,40(4):233-240, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2023.80754
    Abstract:
    Nanomaterials have been widely used in the detection of heavy metal ions in food due to their large specific surface area, good stability, special structure, easy modification, and good biocompatibility. This review focuses on the research and application status of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon quantum dots, metal-organic frameworks and nanoenzymes in the detection of heavy metal ions in food. The challenges and application prospects of nanomaterials in the detection of heavy metal ions in food are also discussed.
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    2022(5):234-240, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.60025
    [Abstract] (600) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.52 M] (1315)
    Abstract:
    This review introduced the classification, structure and physical and chemical properties of dietary fiber, and summarized the relevant research literature on the modification methods and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber at home and abroad in recent years. The development direction of the physicochemical properties of dietary fiber and its modification methods were also prospected, in order to provide a theoretical reference for its efficient and comprehensive utilization.
    2022(4):150-155, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90029
    [Abstract] (586) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.60 M] (1177)
    Abstract:
    Objective:Improve the quality of dried okra products.Methods:The rehydration ratio, shrinkage rate, vitamin C content, drying time and sensory score were used to analyze the effects of different pretreatment methods on the quality of dried okra products, and the coefficient of variation method was used for comprehensive weighted evaluation.Results:The results showed that blanching and ultrasonic pretreatment can significantly increase the rehydration ratio of the dried sample (P<0.05). The shrinkage rate was most affected by blanching. The vitamin C content of the pretreatment group was lower than that of the control group, and the ultrasound treatment group had the least loss. The blanching and ultrasonic pretreatment can shorten the drying time, and sensory scores of samples pretreated by ultrasound and color protection were significantly higher than those pretreated by blanching (P<0.05). The comprehensive evaluation by the coefficient of variation method showed that the quality of the okra pretreated by ultrasonic was the best, followed by the color protection treatment, and the blanching treatment had the lowest comprehensive score. When the ultrasonic pretreatment temperature was 20 ℃, the comprehensive score of the dried sample obtained was the highest, which was 0.907.Conclusion:The research showed that the ultrasonic pretreatment was a better pretreatment method with hot air drying of okra.
    [Abstract] (606) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.59 M] (1154)
    Abstract:
    Based on the scientific theory of modern nutrition and functional food science, this paper uses biotechnology and information digital technology to establish a more precise, flexible, integrated and digital functional food research and development system-flexible precise nutrition intervention system (FPNIS) which improves the shortcomings of the two common functional food research and development models that are based on traditional Chinese herbal medicines or simple ingredient dietary supplements. Through the establishment of FPNIS, provide a new way to explore the research and development of efficient and precise functional food, and analyze its trend.
    2019,35(12):87-95, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2019.12.016
    [Abstract] (425) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.06 M] (1114)
    Abstract:
    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 19 kinds of organochlorine pesticides in apple-pear was established based on optimized solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPE-GC/MS). Different extraction conditions, included extraction solvent, extraction solvent volume, sample weight, solid phase extraction clean-up and eluent were optimized during the sample pretreatment. The quantification were analyzed by GC/MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and the external standard method. The method showed good linearity (R2≥0.996 7) for all the pesticides. The recoveries at three spiked levels (20, 40, and 200 μg/kg) ranged from 86.1% to 108.9% with the relative standard deviation below 10%. The limit of detection ranged from 3 to 6 μg/kg and the limit of quantification ranged from 10.0 to 20.0 μg/kg the for 19 kinds of pesticides, respectively. The method was simple, accurate and showed high sensitivity for screening and detection of the 19 kinds of pesticides in apple-pear.
    2022(4):134-140, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90127
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aimed to provide strategy for controlling the fungal diseases of postharvest blueberry in Sichuan province.Methods:The pathogenic bacteria from 14 planting bases in Sichuan Province were isolate, identified, pathogenicity determination. Moreover, the effects of temperature and light on mycelia growth of the dominant and subdominant strains of blueberry after harvest were studied, and the effective natural antibacterial components against them were screened.Results:The blueberry postharvest rot diseases were caused by the following nine kinds of fungi:Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus tubingensis,Neofusicoccum parvum,Neopestalotiopsissp.,Fusarium graminearum,Alternaria alternata,Mucor fragilis,Penicilliumsp.,Cladosporium xylophilum.Aspergillus niger was the dominant species with the highest isolation frequency and the most pathogenic, andNeopestalotiopsissp.,Alternaria alternata,Penicilliumsp.,Cladosporium xylophilum were the subdominant species with isolation frequencies greater than 10%. The optimum growth temperature ranged from 20 ℃to 35 ℃of dominant and subdominant strains of blueberry postharvest. The effects of light on the mycelia growth ofA. niger,Neopestalotiopsissp., A. alternata,and C. xylophilum were significant,but that was insignificant on the growth ofPenicilliumsp.strains. Thymol showed good broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, the EC50 values of dominant and subdominant strains of blueberry postharvest was 30~50 mg/L, while the thymol applied directly to blueberry postharvest fungal control in aqueous solution should not be higher than 50 mg/L.Conclusion:Thymol is more effective on postharvest diseases of blueberry in Sichuan province.
    [Abstract] (230) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.03 M] (1093)
    Abstract:
    Objective:This paper proposed a genetic fuzzy PID cascade control system. Methods:Taking the outlet temperature as the main control quantity and the inlet temperature as the secondary controlled quantity, a cascade control system was made. The genetic fuzzy PID controller was used to control the main loop, and the PI controller was used to control the secondary loop. Results:Compared with conventional PID control, the cascade genetic fuzzy PID control had the advantages of shorter regulation time, better robustness. Conclusion:The genetic fuzzy PID cascade control system for soy flour spray drying tower can improve the quality of soy flour production.
    2022(6):128-133, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90139
    [Abstract] (377) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.80 M] (1092)
    Abstract:
    Objective:In order to preserve more volatile components of celery and reduce its moisture content. Methods:A hot-air coupled microwave drying system based on aroma detection was designed. An electronic nose (PEN3) was applied to detect volatile components, assisted with GC-MS to measure the specific content of volatile components. Based on constant temperature drying (50, 60, 70 and 80 ℃), sensor 7 and 9 were chosen for subsequent combined control. Results:Comparing with constant temperature drying, the combined control drying using volatile compounds detection could retain more volatile substances, and a good balance had been achieved between the quality of the dried product and the drying rate. The drying time of combined control was 67 min, closing to constant temperature drying at 70 ℃ (63 min). Meanwhile, optima color difference (16.313±1.745) and sensory evaluation (28.9) were obtained under combined control drying. Conclusion:Microwave coupled hot-air drying control of celery stalks based on volatile compounds detection could be applied to produce high-flavor celery stalks.
    [Abstract] (590) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.61 M] (1054)
    Abstract:
    Objective:The flavor formation process of stewed pork was investigated in this study. Methods: Electronic nose and gas-phase mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to compare the key processes such as bleaching, frying, stewing and addition of sauces during the processing of stewed pork, and to analyze the changes of flavor compounds. Results: The results of electronic nose measurement were consistent with the results of gas chromatography analysis. The flavor content of raw pork and sauces was the highest, and the flavor substances decreased in the blanching, frying and stewing stages. However, the characte-ristic flavor substances were formed continuously. A total of 148 compounds were detected by GC-MS, including 39, 32, 23, 20, 38, and 65 compounds in raw pork, blanched, fryed, stewed and finished products and sauces, respectively, which mainly produced aldehydes and ketones, esters and alcohols, heterocyclic compounds, and aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The characteristic flavors of finished products were hexanal, benzaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-pentylfuran, 2-acetyl pyrrole, 2,3-dimethyl-5-ethylpyrazine, etc. The content of acetoin was higher in the pre-preparation stage of stewed pork, while methoxy-phenyl-Oxime stayed high in all of the processes. Conclusion: The electronic nose technique can be used to detect the changes of flavor substances in different processing stages of stewed pork, but the specific substance changes need to be determined and analyzed by GC-MS.
    2022(5):138-142,148, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.60011
    [Abstract] (330) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.94 M] (1031)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To improve the development and utilization rate of Lycium barbarum in the saline-alkali land of the Yellow River Delta. Methods: Ultraviolet spectrophotometer was used to determine the scavenging effect of Lycium barbarum oligosaccharide on free radicals and its effect on the growth curve and pH value of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, so as to determine its antioxidant performance and the ability to proliferate probiotics. Results: The concentration of Lycium barbarum oligosaccharide reached 2.0 mg/mL, the maximum scavenging rates of DPPH·, ABTS+ and hydroxyl radical reached (65.32±0.03)%, (99.93±0.05)% and (21.86±0.01)%, respectively, when the concentration was between 0.1~0.5 mg/mL, it showed good total reducing power. The OD value of Bifidobacterium adolescentis increased with the increase of Lycium barbarum oligosaccharide concentration, and the pH value was negatively correlated with the cell concentration. Conclusion: Lycium barbarum oligosaccharides show strong antioxidant activity and the ability to proliferate probiotics.
    [Abstract] (494) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.06 M] (1025)
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study focused on improving the production of chitosan oligosaccharides by chitinase degradation of chitin. Methods: Using genetic engineering methods to clone, prokaryotic expressing, and investigating enzymatic properties of the chitinase from Streptomyces diastaticus, and the chitinase activity was explored by homology modeling, amino acid comparison of the catalytic domain, and site-directed mutagenesis. Results: After cloning and prokaryotic expression, the enzyme production cycle was shortened from 7 d to 24 h, and the enzyme activity reached 132 U/L, which was 32% higher than the original bacterial enzyme activity (100 U/L). The amino acids that determine the activity of chitinase was Asp at position 128, 130, and Glu at position 132 of the catalytic domain. Conclusion: Clonal expression of the chitinase gene resulted in a shorter enzyme production cycle and increased enzyme activity.
    Abstract:
    Objective:Two kinds of titration methods (automatic potentiometric titration and indicator titration) of GB 5009.229 and GB 5009.227 were used to analyze the expanded uncertaintyof the determination of acid value and peroxide value in edible oil.Methods:CNAS-GL006 was used for the uncertainty component and extended uncertainty of the measurement results of the two titration methods.Results:The results showed that the standard solution was the main factor affecting the uncertainty of acid value (value) and peroxide value.Conclusion:The effects of the two titration methods on peroxide value and acid value (value) of edible oil is relatively small, and the appropriate titration method can be selected according to the actual situation for the basic testing organization.
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aimed to explore the effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus J8 fermented kiwifruit on bread baking and flavor profile characteristics of wheat bread. Methods: The changes in β glucosidase enzyme activity, organic acids and flavor compounds during kiwifruit fermentation were analyzed. The physical and chemical properties of wheat dough incorporated with fermented kiwifruit were determined. Moreover, the changes in total dietary fiber and total amino acid content, bread quality and flavor characteristics of the resulted bread were also determined. Results: After 15.5 hours of fermentation, the β glucosidase activity reached 55.13 U/L, and the content of lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased. A total of 110 flavor compounds were detected by GC TOF/MS in kiwifruit. After fermentation, the content of acids, esters, alcohols and terpenes increased, while the content of aldehydes and ketones decreased. For the first time, α angelica lactone, furfuryl acetate and pantolactone were found in kiwifruit. In dough, compared with the unfermented group, the α amylase and protease activities increased by 14.86% and 18.63%, respectively after incorporation of fermented kiwifruit. In bread, compared with the unfermented group, the hardness (11.58%) decreased, while the soluble dietary fiber, total amino acids and specific volume increased by 12.54%, 41.02% and 18.59%, respectively. In addition, bread incorporated with fermented kiwifruit tasted better, had an increased content (27.78%) and type (45.10%) of flavor compounds and a higher overall acceptability than bread incorporated with unfermented kiwifruit. Conclusion: Fermenting kiwifruit with Pediococcus pentosaceuscan improve the flavor and baking characteristics of bread.
    2022(5):24-29,36, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90149
    Abstract:
    Objective: To accurately distinguish intact peanut, nut damaged peanut and epidermis damaged peanut. Methods: A peanut seed integrity detection scheme based on deep learning convolution neural network (CNN) was proposed. The peanut seed color selection system was established and a peanut seed image database was also established; The improved density peak clustering (DPC) algorithm was used to adaptively compress the CNN convolution kernel to effectively balance the network depth and operation efficiency; The improved sparrow search algorithm was used to optimize the CNN super parameter configuration and network structure, and the CNN model suitable for peanut grain integrity detection was obtained. Results: Compared with other detection methods, this scheme improved the recognition accuracy by about 5.41%~13.92%, and the detection time of single image of peanut grain was shortened by about 16.9%. Conclusion: This method effectively improves the accuracy and real-time of peanut grain integrity detection.
    Abstract:
    Objective:This experiment is to judge the comprehensive quality of Hunan bacon.Methods:The contents of 8 biogenic amines in Hunan bacon were determined by HPLC-UV. The contents of moisture content, peroxide value and nitrite were measured.Results:The facts showed the total amount of biogenic amines was 127.22~166.24 mg/kg, which were mainly composed of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and tyramine. The content of histamine was 0.43~10.24 mg/kg while the content of tyramine was 2.11~57.60 mg/kg. As for the physical and chemical indicators, the moisture content in the sample ranged from 13%~23%, the detection range of peroxide value was 0.014 2~0.035 0 g/100 g, with the nitrite content ranging from 2.15 to 7.50 mg/kg.Conclusion:The content of biogenic amines in Hunan bacon products is lower than the European Union and US FDA standard. All physical and chemical indexes meet the national standard.
    Abstract:
    Objective:To monitor and control mold spores contamination effectively in food (beverage) processing workshops.Methods:The mold spores are enriched and classified by microfluidic chip, and the air aerosol was collected in 2~10 micron channel and prepared on film. Finally, spore images were taken by camera and electron microscope, and spores were detected, distinguished and counted by Canny algorithm.Results:Compared with the traditional falling plate method, the detection device designed in this paper could detect 103cell/mL mold spores sprayed in the air within 20 minutes.Conclusion:Using airborne UAV to detect mold pollution in food (beverage) processing workshop in the air is simple and feasible.
    2022(5):19-23,137, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90037
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to provide theoretical support for the processing application of surimi products by comparing the gel characteristics of Chinese herring surimi and the common surimi. Methods: The surimi gels of Chinese herring, silver carp, white croaker and golden-thread fish were prepared, and the difference of gel strength, texture profile analysis (TPA), gelation index, gel deterioration index, water retention, whiteness and microstructure among the four kinds of surimi were investigated. Results: The hardness, chewiness, adhesiveness, gel strength and water retention of Chinese herring surimi were significantly higher than the those of silver carp surimi (P<0.05). The above results were consistent with the microstructure properties of Chinese herring surimi gel which appeared a smooth, dense and porely unifrom surface. Moreover, the whiteness of Chinese herring surimi (71.23±0.09) was significantly higher than that of white croaker surimi (67.81±0.25) and white croaker surimi (67.16±0.55). Conclusion: The Chinese herring surimi has the advantages of both freshwater and seawater surimi in gel strength, whiteness, water retention and microstructure formation.
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study focuses on the effects of twin-screw extrusion on the functional properties and structure of pea protein. Methods: The color change of pea protein extrudates were analyzed by automatic colorimeter, the water holding capacity and emulsifying characteristics of pea protein were analyzed by chemical analysis. The microstructure of pea protein and its extrudates were observed by scanning electron microscope, and the secondary structure of the extrudates were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: After extrusion treatment, no significant difference was found in the color of pea protein, indicating that the pea protein had a better product color and the water holding capacity was significantly reduced (P<0.05), with the emulsibility and emulsification stability significantly increased (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscope showed that the microstructure changed obviously, resulting in protein aggregates with compact structure. The infrared spectrum showed that no new characteristic peaks appeared after extrusion treatment, but the secondary structure conversion occurred; β-sheet and α-helix structure transformed into β-turn and random coil structure, and the structural stability increased. Conclusion: After extrusion treatment, the pea protein retained its original product color, emulsification characteristics were significantly improved, the structure was dense and stability was enhanced.
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study focuses on improving the comprehensive utilization rate of Polygonatum cyrtonema.Methods:The contents of total flavonoids, total saponins and total phenols from roots, stems, leaves, flowers and buds, of P. cyrtonema were determined. The scavenging rates of DPPH·, ·OH and nitrites in extracts of above tissue were measured and compared as well. Results:The contents of total flavonoids and total phenols five different kinds of non-medicinal tissue were in the same order, in which from highest to lowest was, leaves, buds, flowers, stems and roots, and the content of total saponins in flower was the highest In terms of antioxidant activity, the DPPH ·, ·OH and nitrite scavenging rate of leaf extract were the highest, followed by buds and flowers. Correlation analysis showed that the clearance of DPPH ·, · OH and nitrite by the extract from different tissue showed a certain positive correlation with the contents of total flavonoids, total saponins and total phenols. Conclusion:The extract of non-medicinal parts of P. cyrtonema has good biological activity.
    Abstract:
    Objective:A method based on the high resolution mass spectrometry library and diagnostic ratio of characteristic components was established to identify the illegally added psoraleae fructus in wine and tea.Methods:High resolution mass spectrometry library of psoraleae fructus was constructed by high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) for preliminary screening. Combined with the diagnostic ratio method of the characteristic components by, high performance liquid chromatography, psoraleae fructus in different 20 samples of mixed wine and mixed tea from different picking time and origin was tested and analyzed The diagnostic ratio of characteristic component peak area, which was less affected by the origin, picking time and processing technology, has no significant difference between different matrix groups, and was selected as the identification index.Results:High resolution mass spectrometry library of psoraleae fructus was established by high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) for preliminary screening. Corylia/psoralen and psoralen/isopsoralen were selected as the two characteristic groups. The box diagram was drawn to determine that the non-abnormal value range of Corylia/Psoralen was 0.061~0.115, and the non-abnormal value range of Psoralen/Isopsoralen was 1.14~1.68. The established screening and confirmatory methods were validated by commercial samples.Conclusion:The method is simple and efficient, which provides technical support for cracking down on illegal addition of psoraleae fructus in wine and tea.
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aims to explore the correlation between the types and contents of fatty acids and lecithin in fresh walnut.Methods:A kinds of 20 walnuts were selected from Chengdu in Sichuan Province. The method of the gas chromatography and the high performance liquid chromatography were used for quantitative determination. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the results.Results:The fatty acid composition of 20 kinds of fresh walnut was the same basically, with significant differences in content (P<0.05). Longnan 15 had the highest oleic acid content. The contents of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and cis-11-eicosenoic acid of Guangfeng 1 were the highest. The variation coefficient of lecithin was relatively small, and the content of lecithin was the highest in Xilo 3. The content of lecithin in fresh walnut had a high correlation with the content of fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids are highly associated. When the euclide distance was 15, the 20 walnut species could be divided into 3 categories.Conclusion:Longnan 15 and Guangfeng 1 are walnut varieties with high oil quality relatively; Xilo 3 is a walnut variety resource with high content of lecithin relatively.
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    2022(9):185-190, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90178
    Abstract:
    Objective: A microbial enhancer with high-yield glucoamylase was developed from medium-high temperature Daqu and applied to the brewing of Daqu Baijiu for the yield increasing. Methods: Strains with high yield of glucoamylase was isolated from medium-high temperature Daqu and used to make Miqu. Miqu was employed as an enhanced starter in the brewing of Daqu Baijiu, and the yield of Baijiu were tested. Results: A strain M-1 with higher glucoamylase production was isolated and identified as Rhizopus oryzae. The results of the optimized conditions for Miqu making was as follows: bran and rice (2∶8), moisture content 45%, incubation time 72 h, drying temperature 40 ℃. Under the control of these conditions, the glucoamylase activity of Miqu is as high as 864.50 U/g. When appling the Miqu to the brewing of Daqu Baijiu, the results showed that when the addition amount of by, and the yield increased to 43.17% with the addition of 2% (weight of grain) M-1 Miqu. Conclusion: This study established a method for preparing Miqu from Rhizopus oryzae to improve the glucoamylase activity of medium-high temperature Daqu.
    Abstract:
    Objective:In order to established a non-destructive, rapid and efficient method for detecting the moisture content of rice. Methods:This study, 161 rice samples were collected from 5 different regions were studied by near infrared spectroscopy combined with stoichiometry. By eliminating abnormal spectra and preprocessing the spectra, the prediction model of rice moisture content was established by partial least squares regression. Results:15 abnormal spectrum samples were eliminated using the method of principal component analysis combined with mahalanobis distance. The best spectral pretreatment was to eliminate the constant offset. The prediction model R2CAL established in the training set was 0.994 3, root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) was 0.21%, R2CV was 0.993 6, and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 0.32%, which indicated that the cross-validation of the prediction model had high accuracy in predicting sample moisture content. The prediction model was tested with the validation set samples. The validation determination coefficient R2VAL of the model validation set was 0.980 1, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.36%, and the relative percent deviation (RPD) was 7.14, which indicated that the prediction model had high prediction accuracy for the unknown samples. The P-value (two-sided) of the mean equation T-test of the measured and predicted values of the samples in the validation set was 0.879, and the difference between the measured and predicted values of the samples in the validation set was not significant, indicating that the prediction results of the prediction model were highly reliable. The error between the predicted value and the measured value of the verification set samples was within ±1%, and more than 90% were within ±0.5%. Conclusion:The established rice moisture prediction model can be applied to actual production, and it provides a non-destructive, rapid and high-accuracy detection method for the inspection of rice harvesting and storage.
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aimed to explore the effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus J8 fermented kiwifruit on bread baking and flavor profile characteristics of wheat bread. Methods: The changes in β glucosidase enzyme activity, organic acids and flavor compounds during kiwifruit fermentation were analyzed. The physical and chemical properties of wheat dough incorporated with fermented kiwifruit were determined. Moreover, the changes in total dietary fiber and total amino acid content, bread quality and flavor characteristics of the resulted bread were also determined. Results: After 15.5 hours of fermentation, the β glucosidase activity reached 55.13 U/L, and the content of lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased. A total of 110 flavor compounds were detected by GC TOF/MS in kiwifruit. After fermentation, the content of acids, esters, alcohols and terpenes increased, while the content of aldehydes and ketones decreased. For the first time, α angelica lactone, furfuryl acetate and pantolactone were found in kiwifruit. In dough, compared with the unfermented group, the α amylase and protease activities increased by 14.86% and 18.63%, respectively after incorporation of fermented kiwifruit. In bread, compared with the unfermented group, the hardness (11.58%) decreased, while the soluble dietary fiber, total amino acids and specific volume increased by 12.54%, 41.02% and 18.59%, respectively. In addition, bread incorporated with fermented kiwifruit tasted better, had an increased content (27.78%) and type (45.10%) of flavor compounds and a higher overall acceptability than bread incorporated with unfermented kiwifruit. Conclusion: Fermenting kiwifruit with Pediococcus pentosaceuscan improve the flavor and baking characteristics of bread.
    Abstract:
    Objective:Two kinds of titration methods (automatic potentiometric titration and indicator titration) of GB 5009.229 and GB 5009.227 were used to analyze the expanded uncertaintyof the determination of acid value and peroxide value in edible oil.Methods:CNAS-GL006 was used for the uncertainty component and extended uncertainty of the measurement results of the two titration methods.Results:The results showed that the standard solution was the main factor affecting the uncertainty of acid value (value) and peroxide value.Conclusion:The effects of the two titration methods on peroxide value and acid value (value) of edible oil is relatively small, and the appropriate titration method can be selected according to the actual situation for the basic testing organization.
    Abstract:
    Objective: A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method was developed for non-targeted screening of PDE-5 inhibitors in health wine. Methods: An appropriate SERS base of colloidal gold was prepared, and SERS analysis was conducted after the base was mixed with 78 kinds of PDE-5 inhibitors. The spectrogram screening database was established, and whether the matching degree was higher than 70% was used as the basis for judging whether the PDE-5 inhibitors were suspected to be added. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of the method were investigated. Results: The best method of preparing PDE-5 inhibitors of SERS base was adding 1.0 mL 1% chlorauric acid and 0.7 mL 1% trisodium citrate into 98.3 mL ultrapure water. The lowest concentrations were sildenafil 0.05 mg/L, tadanafil 0.5 mg/L, thiosildenafil 0.05 mg/L and acevardenafil 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The qualitative results of simulated samples were consistent with those of HPLC-MS. Conclusion: In theory, this method can be used to screen non-targeted illegal addition of PDE-5 inhibitors in health wine.
    2022(9):18-21,28, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90163
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study focused on the antioxidant andimmune enhancing effects of L.bar barumpu ree.Methods:Theantioxidant capacity of L.bar barum puree was measured byes-tab lishing an acute liver injury model.The immune activity of L.bar barum protoplasmwas evaluated by measuring the index ofimmune organs, the content of serum hemolysin and the degreeof plantar thickening.Results:Both low and medium doses of L.bar barum puree could significantly increase the content of glut a-thione peroxidase(GSH PX) in serum(P<0.05, P<0.01) andglutathione(GSH) in liver tissue(P<0.05) , and significantlydecrease the content ofprotein carbonyl in liver tissue ofmicewith acute alcoholic liver injury(P<0.05, P<0.01)andthecontent of malondialdehyde(MDA) (P<0.05, P<0.01) , andthis indicate L.bar barum protoplasm hadantioxid antact ivity.After continuous gavage of L.barbarum protoplasm for 45 days,the organ development of normalm icewasn otaffected.Compared to the untreated mice, the content of serum hemolysin(P<0.01)and the degree of foot thickening(P<0.05)andphagocytosis index(P<0.01) increased significantly, indicatingthat L.bar barum puree could enhance mice immunity.Conclusion:Eating a certain dose of L.bar barum puree can en-hance the antioxidant capacity and immune ability.
    2022(5):173-178,242, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90028
    Abstract:
    Objective: A process was developed for the purification of bran polyphenols from HPD 600 macroporous resin. The purity and antioxidant activity of the extracts were analyzed before and after purification, and the polyphenol fractions in the purified products were characterized. Methods: The bound polyphenols in wheat bran were extracted by alkali hydrolysis, and the dynamic adsorption-desorption conditions of the macroporous resin were optimized by single-factor test to determine the optimal purification process. The antioxidant activity fraction was determined by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging rate. The characterization of the polyphenol fraction in the purified product was completed by UPLC-MS/MS. Results: Under optimal process conditions, the purity of the polyphenols and the antioxidant activity of the purified product were significantly increased. The purified products contained mainly nine polyphenolic compounds, in order of retention time: p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid and salicylic acid. Conclusion: The macroporous resin purification process is effective in enriching bran polyphenols and the resulting purified product has a significantly higher antioxidant capacity, while maintaining the richness of the polyphenolic species.
    2022,38(7):57-62, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.60051
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aimed to establish a new method for the determination of matrine and oxymatrine in honey by UPLC-MS/MS. Methods: The honey was dissolved in water, and the liquid-liquid extraction pretreatment technology was adopted. The extraction was achieved using ammonia-acetonitrile, with the addition of sodium sulfate to induce a salting out effect. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Inspire HILIC column in the mobile phase composition of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid5 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer. Mass Spectrometry was carried out under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and external standard method for quantitative analysis. Results: The linear relationship between matrine and oxymatrine was observed in the range of 1~100 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998. The detection limit and quantitative limit of matrine and oxymatrine in honeywere 0.1 μg/kg and 0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of matrine and oxymatrine were 90.9%~95.1% and 80.9%~84.3%, respectively, at the spiked levels of 1, 10 and 100 μg/kg, with the relative standard deviations (RSDS)< 10% (n=6). The validated method was then successfully applied to the determination of matrine and oxymatrine in 45 commercially available honey, and the results showed that the detection probability and content of matrine and oxymatrine in acacia honey were relatively high. Conclusion: The established method is accurate, rapid, and sensitive, Moreover, a simultaneous preparation of multiple sample extracts is available, and it can used for the routine determination of matrine and oxymatrine in honey.
    2022(9):7-12,17, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90107
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aimed to clarify the content anddistribution of polyphenols in fruit juice samples and explore theintrinsic connection of the content of polyphenols with the taste offruit juice .Methods: 15 kinds of polyphenols in fruit juice sampleswere determined by HPLC-MS/MS following ethanol ultrasonic-assisted extraction.Various statistical methods such as correlation and_cluster analysis,were used to establish thesensory evaluation system of fruit juice with the values ofdifferent tastes,including sweetness,sourness,bitterness,salty, umami, astringency and piquancy.Lastly, the relationshipbetween the content of polyphenols and sensory evaluation wasexplored by correlation analysis .Results: 14 types of fruit juiceswere divided into four categories owing to their taste, namelysweet, sour-sweet, bitter and bitter-astringent.There was sign if-icant positive relationship between the content of total polyp he-nols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, chl orogenic acids, free phenolicacids and value of astringency.Conclusion:Thecontentsofpoly-phenol varied greatly in different fruit juices, and those withbitter and astringent taste often had high content of polyphenol.However, those with sweet taste had low content of poly oh enol.Polyphenolic compounds, especially the free phenolic acids werethe key substances affecting taste of astringency of fruit juice.
    Abstract:
    Objective: The adsorption performance and mechanism of Xanthoceras sorbifolia shell biochar activated by phosphoric acid for methylene blue was investigated in this study. Methods: With phosphoric acid as activator, the Box-Behnken center combination design was used to optimize the preparation conditions of biochar from Xanthoceras sorbifolia shell. The biochar obtained under the optimal preparation conditions was used to adsorb methylene blue in water. Through investigating the adsorption influencing factors, the adsorption characteristics of biochar on methylene blue were determined, and combined with the analysis of kinetic, the adsorption mechanism was discussed. Results: The optimum technological conditions for preparing biochar from Xanthoceras sorbifolia pericarp by phosphoric acid activation were as follows: impregnation ratio (mPericarp powder∶mPhosphoric acid solution) 1∶21, pyrolysis temperature 530 ℃ and pyrolysis time 75 min. The optimal conditions for adsorption of methylene blue in water by sorbent biochar from Xanthoceras sorbifolia shell are as follows: initial pH of solution 12.6, dosage of biochar 1.0 g/L, initial mass concentration of methylene blue 200 mg/L, and adsorption equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption of Xanthoceras sorbifolia shell biochar on methylene blue in water obeys the quasi second order reaction kinetics. The adsorption process consists of three stages: liquid film diffusion control, pore diffusion control and adsorption desorption equilibrium. Conclusion: Phosphoric acid activation can significantly increase the specific surface area and pore volume of sorbent biochar from Xanthoceras sorbifolia sheell, thereby significantly improving its adsorption capacity for methylene blue.
    2023,39(3):1-10, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.81082
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the microbial succession and the changes of volatile flavor substances in traditional fermented fish. Methods: Traditional microbial counting methods, high-throughput sequencing, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were applied to explore the effects of different fermentation times of traditional fermented fish (0~180 d) on microflora changes and the volatile flavor compounds during the processing of the solid fermentation process of traditional fermented fish as well as on the correlation between them. Results: The results showed that the main dominant bacterial genera included Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, etc. That there were 69 volatile flavor components in fermentation process, mainly including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, N compound;benzene compound, alkyl aromatic compound, esters. and their types and contents changed with the fermentation time. The correlation analysis results showed that Staphylococcus was positively correlated with N-containing compounds and negatively correlated with alcohols. Lactobacillus was significant positively correlated with nonanoic acid,1-octen-3-ol, nonanal, tetradecanal, 2, 4-dimethyl styrene, decyl ene, ethyl caproate (0.01<P<0.05). And negatively correlated with heptenic acid, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2, 3-butanediol, 2, 6-di-tert-butyl p-cresol, Copaene and myristic ethyl ester. Although the relative abundance of microorganisms such as Citrobacter, Turbulella, Psychrobacter, Acinetobacter, Oceanospirillales and Flavobacteria was relatively low in the whole fermentation process, there was also an obvious correlation with the formation of flavor substances. Conclusion: The microbial community and volatile flavor compounds have a series of changes with fermentation time, and there is a significant correlation between them.
    2022(11):217-224, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90234
    Abstract:
    The new extraction technologies of citrus flavonoids in recent five years were reviewed, including low eutectic solvent extraction, subcritical fluid extraction and magnetic molecular blot selective extraction.the bioactivities and mechanisms of citrus flavonoids, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, anti-cancer, intestinal protection, cardiovascular protection, liver protection and neuroprotection, were also expounded, and suggestions for further study of citrus flavonoids were proposed.
    2022(5):24-29,36, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90149
    Abstract:
    Objective: To accurately distinguish intact peanut, nut damaged peanut and epidermis damaged peanut. Methods: A peanut seed integrity detection scheme based on deep learning convolution neural network (CNN) was proposed. The peanut seed color selection system was established and a peanut seed image database was also established; The improved density peak clustering (DPC) algorithm was used to adaptively compress the CNN convolution kernel to effectively balance the network depth and operation efficiency; The improved sparrow search algorithm was used to optimize the CNN super parameter configuration and network structure, and the CNN model suitable for peanut grain integrity detection was obtained. Results: Compared with other detection methods, this scheme improved the recognition accuracy by about 5.41%~13.92%, and the detection time of single image of peanut grain was shortened by about 16.9%. Conclusion: This method effectively improves the accuracy and real-time of peanut grain integrity detection.
    2022(10):146-150, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.90225
    Abstract:
    Objective:This study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of preservatives on storage quality of orah fruits, so as to reduce the use of preservatives during its planting.Methods:The weight loss rate, vitamin C content, soluble solid content and titratable acid content of fruits were determined under different storage conditions, by using different concentrations of preservative.Results:At 4 ℃ and room temperature, the weight loss rate of fruits treated with preservatives was lower than that of the control group, and preservative treatment had different fresh-keeping effects on orah fruits. At 4 ℃, significant differences in vitamin C content among different treatments at 5, 28 and 42 days of storage were found, but no significant differences in other storage time. No significant difference in soluble solids and titratable acid contents among different treatments appeared. Among the treatment groups (treatment 1, treatment 2 and treatment 3), the weight loss rate, vitamin C content, soluble solid content and titratable acid content of orah fruit in treatment 2 were better than those in treatment 1 and 3. At room temperature, vitamin C content was significantly different among different treatments on the third day of storage. After 14 days of storage, the soluble solid content of treatment groups 1 and 2 was significantly different. On the 14th day of storage time, titratable acid content in treatment group 2 was significantly higher than that in treatment group 3. The contents of vitamin C, soluble solids and titratable acid in treatment group 2 were higher than those in other treatment groups, during most storage time.Conclusion:At 4 ℃, each preservative treatment has different degrees of preservation effect on orah fruits. 450 g/L midazamine +500 g/kg statin +100 g/kg 2,4-D+400 g/kg bellkute has better preservation effect on orah fruit.
    Abstract:
    Objective:A method based on the high resolution mass spectrometry library and diagnostic ratio of characteristic components was established to identify the illegally added psoraleae fructus in wine and tea.Methods:High resolution mass spectrometry library of psoraleae fructus was constructed by high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) for preliminary screening. Combined with the diagnostic ratio method of the characteristic components by, high performance liquid chromatography, psoraleae fructus in different 20 samples of mixed wine and mixed tea from different picking time and origin was tested and analyzed The diagnostic ratio of characteristic component peak area, which was less affected by the origin, picking time and processing technology, has no significant difference between different matrix groups, and was selected as the identification index.Results:High resolution mass spectrometry library of psoraleae fructus was established by high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) for preliminary screening. Corylia/psoralen and psoralen/isopsoralen were selected as the two characteristic groups. The box diagram was drawn to determine that the non-abnormal value range of Corylia/Psoralen was 0.061~0.115, and the non-abnormal value range of Psoralen/Isopsoralen was 1.14~1.68. The established screening and confirmatory methods were validated by commercial samples.Conclusion:The method is simple and efficient, which provides technical support for cracking down on illegal addition of psoraleae fructus in wine and tea.
    2023,39(4):191-197, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.80587
    Abstract:
    Starch and protein are two important components in food system. The interactions between starch and protein have important influence on the structure, physicochemical properties of starch and the texture and digestibility of starch-based food. In recent years, the effect of exogenous protein on starch-protein interaction in mixed system and its application have become a hot research topic in the field of food. This article reviews the interaction mode between starch and protein, the effect of protein on physicochemical properties (gelatinization properties, retrogradation properties, rheological properties, thermal properties and texture properties) and microstructure of starch-protein mixed system, summarizes the regulation effect of protein on digestibility of starch in mixed system and its mechanism, and presents the application of the mixed system in food processing, aiming to clarify the mechanism of interactions between starch and protein and provide theoretical reference for the research and development of starch-based food.
    [Abstract] (606) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.59 M] (1154)
    Abstract:
    Based on the scientific theory of modern nutrition and functional food science, this paper uses biotechnology and information digital technology to establish a more precise, flexible, integrated and digital functional food research and development system-flexible precise nutrition intervention system (FPNIS) which improves the shortcomings of the two common functional food research and development models that are based on traditional Chinese herbal medicines or simple ingredient dietary supplements. Through the establishment of FPNIS, provide a new way to explore the research and development of efficient and precise functional food, and analyze its trend.
    2022(5):234-240, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.60025
    [Abstract] (600) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.52 M] (1315)
    Abstract:
    This review introduced the classification, structure and physical and chemical properties of dietary fiber, and summarized the relevant research literature on the modification methods and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber at home and abroad in recent years. The development direction of the physicochemical properties of dietary fiber and its modification methods were also prospected, in order to provide a theoretical reference for its efficient and comprehensive utilization.
    2023,39(5):232-240, DOI: 10.13652/j.spjx.1003.5788.2022.80853
    Abstract:
    Almond oil is a functional vegetable oil obtained from apricot kernel by pressing, extracting and other technologies, which has the effects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the extraction process, nutritional composition and health effect of almond oil were summarized, and the future development tendency of almond oil was prospected.
    [Abstract] (590) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.61 M] (1054)
    Abstract:
    Objective:The flavor formation process of stewed pork was investigated in this study. Methods: Electronic nose and gas-phase mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to compare the key processes such as bleaching, frying, stewing and addition of sauces during the processing of stewed pork, and to analyze the changes of flavor compounds. Results: The results of electronic nose measurement were consistent with the results of gas chromatography analysis. The flavor content of raw pork and sauces was the highest, and the flavor substances decreased in the blanching, frying and stewing stages. However, the characte-ristic flavor substances were formed continuously. A total of 148 compounds were detected by GC-MS, including 39, 32, 23, 20, 38, and 65 compounds in raw pork, blanched, fryed, stewed and finished products and sauces, respectively, which mainly produced aldehydes and ketones, esters and alcohols, heterocyclic compounds, and aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The characteristic flavors of finished products were hexanal, benzaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-pentylfuran, 2-acetyl pyrrole, 2,3-dimethyl-5-ethylpyrazine, etc. The content of acetoin was higher in the pre-preparation stage of stewed pork, while methoxy-phenyl-Oxime stayed high in all of the processes. Conclusion: The electronic nose technique can be used to detect the changes of flavor substances in different processing stages of stewed pork, but the specific substance changes need to be determined and analyzed by GC-MS.
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    2015,31(1):90-92,189, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.021
    Abstract:
    In order to study the factors that the influence of the cassava stalk toughness. Orthogonal experiments were used to test cassava stalk with MW-4 universal testing machine And the influencing factors were selected, for cassava stalk variety, placed time, and colliding parts. The results show that: effect of varieties on the impact energy is the largest, while, the impact energy was the smallest when the variety is SC6, placed for 12 days, and the the upper part collision site. Effect of varieties A on the impact toughness is the largest. The impact toughness is the smallest when the variety is SC6, the moisture content is placed for 0 days, and lower part collision position. The average impact energy and impact toughness of the lower part of cassava stalk are higher than the upper part.
    2015,31(1):86-89, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.020
    Abstract:
    Introduces a electrostatic potential test system designed by LabVIEW, which had been done 7 electrostatic potential test experiments for 6 factors of electrostatic potential on the surface of electrostatic stalk extractors frictional roller, and improve overall electrostatic potential of the optimal solution is given. When drum material is synthetic rubber, roller rotation speed is 38 r/min, counter weight is 10.5 kg, friction material is silk, the humidity is controlled below 60%, the overall electrostatic potential and the stalk rate is the highest.
    2015,31(1):82-85,115, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.019
    Abstract:
    There were two methods to detect the plasticizers of red wine. The first one was a traditional method(GC-MS) and another one was a new method-ELISA kit. An improved pre-processing of GC-MS and the comparative analysis of the two methods was used to find a novel detection method. The results: there was a little difference for the rate of plasticizer extraction with different pre-treatment. And DIBP, DBP, DEHP were detected. The GC-MS method demonstrated high precision and recovery. The GC-MS method was a excellent method to detect the plasticizers of red wine. The detection results of ELISA kit were 3.4 to 5.5 times larger than the GC-MS method. It was enough for ELISA kit as a rapid detection method of the plasticizers of red wine.
    2015,31(1):78-81, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.018
    Abstract:
    A method was developed using ICP-AES for the simultaneous determination on the content of trace heavy metals including Na, Mg, Al, K, etc in 3 spieces of jujube of Xin Jiang district. The correlation index of method was greater than 0.998; Determination of elements in addition to the individual value, RSD is less than 5%. The results showed that: xinjiang jujube had rich mineral elements content, which especially in K (>12 277 μg/g), Ca (>785 μg/g), Mg (> 646 μg/g), Na (425 μg/g), Al (>179 μg/g), Fe (>22 μg/g) content is higher, the K and Fe content of Aksu jun jujube and Hami jujube were higher than other areas and varieties of jujube.
    2015,31(1):75-77, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.017
    Abstract:
    The sample was purifid by solid phase extraction column. A simple, fast, accurate method for determination of Imibenconazole in fruits and vegetables was developed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC—MS—MS). The linear range of the method is from 1.0 μg/L to 100 μg/L ,and the correlation coefficients were 0.998 7~0.999 6, and the detection limit is 1.0 μg/kg. The proposed method has high sensitivity and good reproducibility for determining Imibenconazole.
    2015,31(1):71-74,81, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.016
    Abstract:
    The reasonability using near-infrared spectra (NIRS) for detection of melamine in liquid milk were studied. NIRS of samples were obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR) spectrometer, samples of liquid milk with adding melamine were analyzed while characteristic signals were extracted by wavelet transform and principal component analysis. Quantitative analysis was taken by General the Regression Neural Network(GRNN) for the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of liquid milk adding melamine first. The result is not satisfactory enough that when concentration of melamine is lower than 0.05%, the R2 of predict model is only 0.567. Qualitative discrimination by support vector machine was carried out later. The results showed that the model has a very good discriminate ability of the spectrum. The accuracy of the test set was 94.44%. Overall, NIRS combined with appropriate chemometrics methods is a feasible way to take qualitative discrimination of liquid milk whether or not adding melamine.
    2015,31(1):68-70, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.015
    Abstract:
    The unsafe factors in the products of traditional craft baked betel nuts, betel improved oven baked dry and edible betel nut pieces were analyzed. The results showed that benzopyrene were the major effect factors on the food safety of Betel nut products. And the baked methods of betel nuts had greatly influence on the content of benzopyren. An overdose of benzopyrene was found in these baked betel nuts baked by traditional ways, such as traditional smoked roasting ovens, traditional hot wind roasting ovens. However, taking the baked Betel nuts as materials to manufacture products, the content of benzopyrene in these was within the safe limit level. Sulfur dioxide and nitrite was detected in commodity betel, but it's content within the relevant national control standards, and not enough to cause food safety problems.
    2015,31(1):64-67, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.014
    Abstract:
    Recently,the beef and mutton industrialization is developing rapidlyin Xilingol district of Inner Mongolia. To have a better understanding of sanitary quality of Xilingol beef and mutton, tests of bacterial colony, fecal coliform and pathogenic bacteria were conducted on 160 pieces of Xilingol beef and mutton samples. The results showed that the qualified rate of bacterial colony and fecal coliform were 76.25% and 77.18%, and the detection rate of pathogenic bacteria was 5.63%. The data provided theory evidence for improving Xilingol beef and mutton sanitary quality in the future.
    2015,31(1):59-63, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.013
    Abstract:
    To investigate the accumulation and pollution in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd of the leaf vegetable by Changsha section of Xiangjiang River, three kinds of vegetable were collected and detected. The results showed that: the contents of these four heavy-metal elements in vegetable samples ranked from greatest to least was as follows: Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd; Brassica chinensis L. had strong accumulation ability in Cu, Pb and Cd; 26.67% samples were heavy contaminated.
    2015,31(1):54-58, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.012
    Abstract:
    To investigate the distribution of serotypes, genetic relativity and epidemiological characteristic of Listeria monocytogenes (LM). 22 LM strains isolated from Guangzhou and Xiamen were investigated by ERIC-PCR and Sau-PCR. Results of ERIC-PCR showed that these strains were distributed in 8 patterns (a-h). The main pattern was pattern h, and the number of strains was 8. Genotyping using Sau-PCR showed that all tested strains were grouped into 7 clusters (A-G). These results indicated the genetic relativity and epidemiological characteristic of different LM food-borne isolates.
    2015,31(1):50-53, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.011
    Abstract:
    This research according to the quality requirements of massage base oil as evaluation indexes, combining with free radical clearance, oxidation resistance and other indicators, compared the decolorizing technology's influence on the quality of sesame oil. And compare oils which have done in-depth research in the field of cosmetic skin care, such as olive oil, grape seed oil, wheat germ oil. That results showed that the decoloring process of sesame oil improve the oxidation resistance and the ability of scavenging free radicals significantly. In general, sesame oil skin care is better than other several kinds of vegetable oil which used as massage base oil commonly.
    2015,31(1):46-49, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.010
    Abstract:
    The best adsorption conditions of the attapulgite on Lactobacillus cells were optimized. Different kinds and concentrations of acids and alkalis were used to pretreat the attapulgite, the results showed that 1 mol/L H3PO4 was the best. In pH 6, 0.4 mol/L phosphate buffer system, adsorption of attapulgite on Lactobacillus cells basically completed in 60 min, and reached to the adsorption equilibrium. Adsorption of attapulgite on Lactobacillus cells could well fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. With the increase of temperature, the equilibrium adsorption of attapulgite on Lactobacillus cells increased higher, which was an endothermic process. When Lactobacillus cells concentration increases, the equilibrium adsorption capacity was also increasing. The adsorption process belonged to the preferential adsorption.
    2015,31(1):41-45,140, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.009
    Abstract:
    The physical properties test of the crunchy rice candy was carried out with a texture analyzer under compression mode. The crispness of the crunchy rice candy was tested using the sensory evaluation method and was adopted the compression mode a texture analyzer. Spss statistical analysis software was applied to the data of crispness sensory eveluation and texture test. Subsequently, the forecast model was constructed for the crunchy rice candy crispness by analyzing the correlation between the data of crispness sensory eveluation and texture test. The results showed that:the best testing speed was 1.0 mm/s, the compression deform deformation was 50%.The Peak Positive Force(X1), Positive Area(X2),Area To Positive Peak(X3), Linear Distance(X4)data were very significantly correlated with the crispness of the crunchy rice candy. The prediction model was Y=-4.130+0.241X1-0.101X2-0.487X3+0.128X4, the correlation coefficient was 0.977, P<0.05, and the model can predict the crispness of the crunchy rice candy.
    2015,31(1):37-40, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.008
    Abstract:
    The changes of microstructure of cooked chicken breast treated by ultra-high pressure treatment(UHP) were observed, for the further study of UHP on cooked chicken breast. Results indicated that the gap between the muscle fibers decreased, endomysial disappeared gradually, and the structure of muscle fibers was more closely. Meanwhile, muscle fiber diameter and rate of juice leakage increase could be resulted from UHP significantly. Myofibril was fragmented and gelated obviously when the pressure was over 400 MPa. The microstructure of cooked chicken breast treated by UHP could explain the changes of jucie leakage, texture and edible quality.
    2015,31(1):33-36, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.007
    Abstract:
    Chicken was cooked by three methods which were frying, braising and stewing, to compare the changes of volatile aroma and texture of cooking chicken. Results showed that after cooking chicken sensory quality characteristics changed dramatically. Aldehydes content was significantly higher than alcohols and alkanes in volatile components of fresh meat. However, the volatile compositions of cooking chicken were mainly aldehydes and alkane substances, and aldehydes and alcohols content decreased significantly, with the order of decreasing degree: fried > braised >stewed; But alkane matter content increased significantly with the same order of increasing degree as above. After cooking, some new macromolecules were detected too. Of the three cooking ways, the hardness and chewiness of fried chicken were the lowest, but elasticity and cohesiveness were the highest; the hardness and chewiness of braised chicken tended to be the highest, but elasticity and cohesiveness were the lowest.
    2015,31(1):30-32,163, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.006
    Abstract:
    The nutrient compositions’ change of green beans, black beans, soybean were studied during sprouting in order to provide experimental basis for the sprouting soybean food production and processing. Control soybean germination conditions by using a certain temperature and humidity, regular sampling and assay sprouted soybean’s crude protein, crude fat, reducing sugar, Vc and isoflavone’s content. The results show that: the protein content of green beans, soybean and black beans after seven days’ germination increased by 24.03%, 24.28% and 22.88% respectively than after one day’s germination, the reducing sugar content increased by 129.06%, 127.17% and 125.73% respectively; the Vc content increased by 831.37%, 663.97% and 807.07%; the crude fat content reduced by 37.28%, 35.68.28% and 36.69% respectively. The isoflavone content of three kinds of soybeans reached the maximum value after four days’ germination, the black soybean’s isoflavone was 0.531% and was the highest.
    2015,31(1):25-29, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.005
    Abstract:
    The pH value, intermediate (A294nm), browning intensity (A420nm), free amino group content and antioxidant activity as detection index. The effect of temperature(100 ℃, 120 ℃) on Maillard reaction and antioxidant activity of the Maillard reaction products(MRPs) derived from yellow stripe trevally(Selaroides leptolepis) fish protein hydrolysates was investigated. The results were as follows: when reaction temperature was 120 ℃, the pH value, intermediate (A294nm), browning intensity (A420nm) and free amino group content of the systems during the Maillard reaction were more significant, and the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity of MRPs were enhanced greatly, however, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity of MRPs were decreased significantly, compared with 100 ℃.
    2015,31(1):18-24, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.004
    Abstract:
    Releasing regular of flavor compounds during enzymolysis of mussel (Mytilus edulis) protein and the structure of seafood flavor peptides were investigated with amino acid analysis, ultrafiltration, gelchromatography, RP—HPLC, and UHR—Q—TOF. The results indicated that, during enzymolysis, molecular weight of peptides reduced. The amount of free flavor amino acid and TMA increased. The amount of peptidyl flavor amino acids increased then decreased. It’s advantageous for peptides with low molecular weight to be released at low pH conditions. The total carbohydrate varied little. The total acid reached the maximum in 1 h and at 50 ℃, respectively. Under the conditions that enzymolysis time of 2 h, enzymolysis temperature of 50 ℃ and enzymolysis pH of 6.5, the percentage of low molecular weight peptides, total acid, total carbohydrate, and flavor amino acid were in fairly high level. The flavor peptides form mussel (Mytilus edulis) were determinated as peptides in a low molecular weight below 1 kDa, with unique amino acid sequences of Cys-Ser-Val-Gln-Asp-Gln or Gln-Ala-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr, and taste threshold of 0.1 mg/mL.
    2015,31(1):14-17, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.003
    Abstract:
    Chicken soup and mixed samples with artificial blending were tested by electronic tongue and the response signals were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and partial least-squares analysis (PLS). Chicken soup and artificial blended soup were successfully identified by electronic tongue. Moreover, a high regression coefficient, R2=0.958 71, between instrumental response signal and mixed ratio of chicken soup and artificial blended soup was found for the established PLS model with a prediction error below 15%.This study demonstrates that electronic tongue is applicable for soup discrimination.
    2015,31(1):6-13,40, DOI: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2015.01.002
    Abstract:
    Effect of the different ratio of succinic acid to cigarettes on the volatile substances formed in the process of pyrolysis was studied to investigate the influence mechamism of succinic acid on the decreasing flavor of cigarettes by the technologies of online Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. It was shown that free nicotine would decrease substancially while mono-protonated and diprotonated nicotine would increase obviously with increasing succinic acid. With the addition of 1%, 2% and 3% of succinic acid to cigarettes, the total volatile substances formed in the process of pyrolysis of cigarettes was reduced by about 23 percent, while low molecular weight carbonyls and furans down by 26%~30% and alkenes down by 23%~26%. The quantity of carbohydrates pyrolysates and volatile Maillard reaction’s products fell by 30 percent, particularly DDMP and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural decreased sharply, down by 84.1% and 75.6% respectively when the usage of succinic acid reached 3%. The total phenols were reduced by 29.5%, 37.0% and 37.3% respectively while key aroma chemicals fell by 31.4%, 36.8% and 36.8% respectively, when 1%, 2% and 3% of succinic acid were added to cigarettes. According to the changing conditions of the formed volatile substances, the influence mechanism of succinic acid on the suppressing flavor of cigarettes was deduced.

期刊介绍

  • Editor-in-Chief:ZHU Bei-wei
  • Address:Changsha University of Science and Techonology NO.960 2nd section, Wanjiali RD(S)
  • Post code:410114
  • ISSN:1003-5788
  • CN:43-1183/TS
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post code:410114

contact address:Changsha University of Science and Techonology NO.960 2nd section, Wanjiali RD(S)

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